I plan to put explanations here as I am writing, but if I use a term you are unfamiliar with, please let me know.
Parts of a quilt – usually 3 layers: the top, the batting, the backing
Quilt top – the decorative part. Often this is a series of blocks surrounded by a border. It may be pieced, such as patchwork, or a whole piece of cloth, sometimes with appliqued design. In whole cloth quilts, it is the quilting that makes the design.
Batting or wadding – the filling that makes the quilt warm and gives it the padded look. It may be wool, cotton, or polyester. Each has different qualities. Cotton and wool are thinner and easier to quilt. Polyester is thicker and lighter so gives greater loft (thickness).
Backing – usually one piece of fabric, often solid colour to show the quilting design, but anything can be used.
Binding – The edging to finish the quilt.
Dresden Plate – a form of pieced quilt block, comprising a circular centre design, named after the ornately decorated tableware of Dresden
Flying Geese – a quilt block, comprising triangles in one direction, signifying migrating geese. There are many other interesting definitions of these old quilt blocks.
Free Motion Quilting – Quilting or finishing done on a sewing machine with the feed dogs down, so the quilt can be moved in any direction under the needle.
Jelly Roll – Precut strips of coordinating fabric for quilting, usually 2.5″ wide, rolled together for selling.
Long Arm Quilting Machine – a special sewing machine that moves freely over a quilt allowing the operator to create a design on the top using free motion.
Sashing – strips of fabric that go between the blocks and act as a frame to add definition
Stitch in the Ditch – A method of holding all layers of a quilt together by stitching in the seams of the top quilt. Usually invisible on top, but shows on the backing.
Wadding – see Batting